Michael Fox Ph.D. Expert Witness - Aerosol Technology
Aerosol Expert and Failure Analysis Investigation
This write up provides a "summary" of Dr. Fox's qualifications as they pertain to his work in aerosol technology and as an aerosol expert witness. A great deal more information can be provided upon request. Briefly, Dr. Fox has been a testifying aerosol expert witness for over 20 years, during which time he has had at least two aerosol-related cases/projects each year.
Aerosol technology encompasses two primary scientific disciplines. The first is Physical Chemistry and the second is Material Science (more specifically, metallurgy, corrosion and failure analysis).
Physical Chemistry deals with the product in the aerosol can (the substance for which the aerosol was purchased). The product is most often a liquid solution or emulsion, both of which are within the curriculum of Physical Chemistry. The propellant for aerosols (the substance that gives it spraying power) is most often a liquefied gas, such as (but not limited to) propane, butane or tetrafluoroethane. The phase transformation from liquid to gas is the chemical force that gives an aerosol its ability to spray product on demand. Such liquid to gas phase transformations and the behavior of gases are at the core of graduate studies in Physical Chemistry.
The aerosol containers are most often made from metal (steel or aluminum) and the integrity of a metal container is the topic of Materials Science, Metallurgy, Corrosion and Failure Analysis.
Dr. Fox has his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry and has spent the majority of his 30-year professional career in Metallurgy, Corrosion and Failure Analysis. He was recognized on an International level for his discovery of a metallurgical phenomenon (LTS) in stainless steels. He is also accredited in Basic Corrosion and Cathodic Corrosion by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers and accredited in both Failure Analysis and Metallurgy by ASM (The American Society of Metals).
Additionally, Dr. Fox is accredited in Aerosol Technology by the Center for Professional Advancement (CPA) as well as the British Aerosol Manufacturer's Association (BAMA). He is a Certified Fire & Explosion Investigator, OSHA HAZWOPER Certified in hazardous materials, and DOT Certified in hazardous materials. The explosion of an aerosol container is classified as a mechanical explosion in the science of fire investigation. The DOT Regulations (49CFR) govern the minimum specifications for aerosol containers. Dr. Fox is also Certified as a Process Hazard Analysis Team Leader per the OSHA Standard.
Dr. Fox has over 80 peer-reviewed scientific publications and about 3/4ths of those concern metallurgy, corrosion and failure analysis.
Dr. Fox has been investigating aerosol-related fires and injuries for over twenty years. He has investigated over 50 different aerosol-related incidents and has been hired by aerosol companies at least fifteen times. It is rare to find an aerosol expert who has been hired by both plaintiffs and aerosol companies in the aerosol industry. He has personally developed and/or performed over 30 different kinds of experimental methods to test aerosols and aerosol containers and has performed literally 100's of experiments on aerosols.
In 2004 Dr. Fox published a peer-reviewed paper on the failure of aerosol containers. Historically speaking, this paper was the very first "failure analysis" paper on aerosols in the open, peer-reviewed, scientific literature. Since 2004 Dr. Fox has continued to publish peer-reviewed papers on the failure of aerosol containers and has published more peer-reviewed papers (over 6) on "the failure" of aerosol containers than all others combined since the invention of aerosols. Much has been written about aerosols, but hardly anything on the "failure" of aerosols. His aerosol explosion paper in 2007 won the Paper-of-the-Year Award from the ASM Journal of Failure Analysis & Prevention. The subject of that Paper-of-the-Year was bottom-explosions of aerosol containers.
While at General Electric Corporate Research and Development, Dr. Fox had been a bench scientist working daily on metallurgy, corrosion and failure analysis for five years. While at GE, Dr. Fox discovered a metallurgical phenomenon (LTS) in stainless steels that went on to receive international research attention via an International Workshop on that very discovery. Dr. Fox chaired that workshop.
During his 5-year career at the Electric Power Research Institute, Dr. Fox helped formulate, direct and manage about $100 million worth of research on metallurgy, corrosion and failure analysis. He also chaired three International Workshops on metallurgy, corrosion and failure analysis. He was also the lead off speaker at an International Meeting on metallurgy, corrosion and failure analysis related to pipe cracking and the safety and reliability of nuclear reactors. Dr. Fox provided a comprehensive overview of EPRI's research to solve pipe cracking in boiling water nuclear reactors.
During the past 20-plus years Dr. Fox has testified numerous times as an aerosol expert witness.
In 2010 Dr. Fox served on the Canadian Technical Advisory Committee for the Canadian Aerosol Standards.
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